Image Descriptions

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While we try to list all figures in order, edits to the book may result in figure descriptions going out of order. For best results, always access the description from the caption link.

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FIGURE 3a

A tweet from a person named Ron Hogan that reads “The Nazis murdered Senator Schumer’s grandmother and most of her children. Trump’s father was arrested at a Ku Klux Klan rally.” It is in response to a Donald Trump Tweet.

It has been retweeted over 55,000 times

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FIGURE 4a

A story with the headline “MORE HYPOCRISY: Obama banned all Iraqi Refugees for 6 Months in 2011– Liberals said nothing!” over a picture of protests against President Trump’s ban.

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FIGURE 5a

A set of Duck Duck Go search results. The top results are from fact-checking sites Snopes and Politifact.

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FIGURE 6a

A segment of a President Trump speech that reads “We must protect those who protect us. The number of officers shot and killed in the line of duty last year increased by 56 percent from the year before.”

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FIGURE 7a

Duck Duck Go search results. The top search result is an article from the Washington Post fact-checker and we can see the highlighted text that matches our query.

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FIGURE 8a

A story with the headline “Report: US Government Ethics director approved controversial tweets” over a picture of President Trump.

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FIGURE 9a

Text from the article with sentences mentioning Daily Dot highlighted. If you read carefully, the Daily Dot (another publication) is the source of each fact, e.g. “the Daily Dot reported that Shaub sent an email”, etc.

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FIGURE 10a

A screenshot of a page from the publication Network World. There are ten stories at the bottom of the page, but in small print under each one is an indication that they were paid for by an advertiser. The one in the upper left corner reads “Lawmakers Concerned About Insane Military Scope Released to Public” and is sponsored by “ZeroTac Tactical Scopes”.

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FIGURE 11a

An enlargement of the ZeroTac technical scope “article” link, showing the space below it where it indicates the sponsor.

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FIGURE 12a

An article from InfoWorld on the topic of “Integrated Systems” by a man named Paul Miller. But above the article is small text that reads “Sponsored”, and near the top of the page is tiny text that indicates the sponsor is Hewlett Packard, a company that sells integrated systems.

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FIGURE 14a

A screenshot of a New York Times webpage with many items on it. In the middle column of items, a small “News from AP and Reuters” tops the column.

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FIGURE 15a

New York Times article with headline “UK Stock Market Hits Record as Manufacturers Win Business”. Where a reporters name might usually appear under the headline is a small “by the Associated Press”

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FIGURE 18a

An article titled “Do You Support Patriotic Bikers Defending Trump’s Inauguration?” The article says that a source named “Right Alerts Polls” broke the story, but does not provide a link.

End.

FIGURE 19a

Screenshot of the result of selecting and right-clicking. The term “Rights Alerts Polls” is highlighted and a context menu shown. The context menu offers an option to “Search Google for ‘Rights Alerts Polls’.” Note that you could do this without using the context menu: just copy and paste the phrase into to a Google search box.

End.

FIGURE 20a

A Google search for “Right Alerts Polls bikers” reveals the article the other page cited as a source. It is the top result.

End.

FIGURE 21a

The extended quote from the page reads: “These libtards need to shut the hell up. This is not only a biker event, but it is a Trump Supporters event. We are many and varied but we unite as one.” It is said to be a quote on a Facebook page organizing the event.

End.

FIGURE 22a

Screenshot of selecting “shut the hell up. This is not only a biker event”. The context menu offers an option to “Search Google for ‘shut the hell up. This is not only a biker event’.” Note that you could do this without using the context menu: just copy and paste the phrase into to a Google search box.

End.

FIGURE 23a

The Google search results for “shut the hell up. This is not only a biker event”. The second result (which the screenshot calls attention to) has a web address on Facebook and is in the subdirectory of “events”.

End.

FIGURE 24a

Facebook page showing only 1,800 have indicated that they are going to the biker event. In addition, only 8,000 are interested, and the page has only been shared with 10,000 people total.

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FIGURE 60a

Headline Reads: Clinton Received Debate Questions Week Before Debate, According to Sources.

A screenshot of the Baltimore Gazette, a site created to spread misinformation.

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FIGURE 61a

A Google search tip demonstrating how to exclude a specific site from search results. The string used in the example is “baltimoregazette.com -site:baltimoregazette.com”. This would search all sites except for “baltimoregazette.com”.

End.

FIGURE 62a

A screenshot of the homepage of the Pacific Justice Institute.

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FIGURE 63a

A screenshot of a Google search showing how to use search to learn more about potential biases in web sites.

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