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46 Image Descriptions

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While we try to list all figures in order, edits to the book may result in figure descriptions going out of order. For best results, always access the description from the caption link.

Figure headings are linked to themselves. Clicking on a link will merely scroll it to the top of the page.

FIGURE 1

A tweet from Twitter user @RonHogan that reads “The Nazis murdered Senator Schumer’s grandmother and most of her children. Trump’s father was arrested at a Ku Klux Klan rally.” It is in response to a Donald Trump tweet.

It has been retweeted over 55,000 times.

End.

FIGURE 2

A story with the headline “MORE HYPOCRISY: Obama banned all Iraqi Refugees for 6 Months in 2011– Liberals said nothing!” over a picture of protests against President Trump’s ban.

End.

FIGURE 3

A set of DuckDuckGo search results. The top results are from fact-checking sites Snopes and Politifact.

End.

FIGURE 4

A segment of a President Trump speech that reads “We must protect those who protect us. The number of officers shot and killed in the line of duty last year increased by 56 percent from the year before.”

End.

FIGURE 5

DuckDuckGo search results. The top search result is an article from the Washington Post fact-checker and highlighted text matches our query.

End.

FIGURE 6

A story with the headline “Report: US Government Ethics director approved controversial tweets” over a picture of President Trump.

End.

FIGURE 7

Text from the article with sentences mentioning the Daily Dot highlighted. If you read carefully, the Daily Dot (another publication) is the source of each fact (e.g. “the Daily Dot reported that Shaub sent an email” etc.).

End.

FIGURE 8

A screenshot of a page from the publication Network World. There are ten stories at the bottom of the page, but in small print under each one is an indication that they were paid for by an advertiser. The one in the upper left corner reads “Lawmakers Concerned About Insane Military Scope Released to Public” and is sponsored by “ZeroTac Tactical Scopes.”

End.

FIGURE 9

An enlargement of the ZeroTac technical scope “article” link, showing the space below it where it indicates the sponsor.

End.

FIGURE 10

An article from InfoWorld on the topic of “Integrated Systems” by a man named Paul Miller. But above the article is small text that reads “Sponsored,” and near the top of the page is tiny text that indicates the sponsor is Hewlett Packard, a company that sells integrated systems.

End.

FIGURE 11

A screenshot of a New York Times webpage with many items on it. In the middle column of items, small text reading “News from AP and Reuters” tops the column.

End.

FIGURE 12

New York Times article with headline “UK Stock Market Hits Record as Manufacturers Win Business.” Where a reporter’s name might usually appear under the headline reads in small print, “by the Associated Press.”

End.

FIGURE 13

An article titled “Do You Support Patriotic Bikers Defending Trump’s Inauguration?” The article says that a source named Right Alerts Polls broke the story, but does not provide a link.

End.

FIGURE 14

Screenshot of the result of selecting and right-clicking. The term “Rights Alerts Polls” is highlighted and a context menu shows. The context menu offers an option to “Search Google for ‘Rights Alerts Polls'”. Note that you could do this without using the context menu; just copy and paste the phrase into to a Google search box.

End.

FIGURE 15

A Google search for “Right Alerts Polls bikers” reveals the article the other page cited as a source. It is the top result.

End.

FIGURE 16

The extended quote from the page reads, “These libtards need to shut the hell up. This is not only a biker event, but it is a Trump Supporters event. We are many and varied but we unite as one.” It is said to be a quote on a Facebook page organizing the event.

End.

FIGURE 17

Screenshot of selecting “shut the hell up. This is not only a biker event.” The context menu offers an option to “Search Google for ‘shut the hell up. This is not only a biker event'”. Note that you could do this without using the context menu; just copy and paste the phrase into to a Google search box.

End.

FIGURE 18

The Google search results for “shut the hell up. This is not only a biker event.” The second result (which the screenshot calls attention to) has a web address on Facebook and is in the subdirectory of “events.”

End.

FIGURE 19

Facebook page showing only 1,800 have indicated that they are going to the biker event. In addition, only 8,000 are interested, and the page has only been shared with 10,000 people total.

End.

FIGURE 20

A photo shared through ABC News showing a parked car boxed in by shopping carts with the headline, “Shopper Upset over Double-Parked Car.”

End.

FIGURE 21

The top two Google search results for “shopper upset over double-parked car abc action news.”

End.

FIGURE 22

The Google search results for “shopping carts double-parked portland or.”

End.

FIGURE 23

A WGME article explaining the story behind a picture of a double-parked car surrounded by shopping carts.

End.

FIGURE 24

Google search results for “Matthew Mills” with one result featuring the caption, “this guy got a lesson in parking.”

End.

FIGURE 25

Facebook search result for “‘got a lesson in parking’ Matthew Mills” showing a public post by Matthew Mills.

End.

FIGURE 26

Google Image search results for “parking revenge carts.”

End.

FIGURE 27

A Reddit post titled “Great Parking Job” showing a picture of a double-parked car surrounded by shopping carts.

End.

FIGURE 28

A tweet by user @NinjaEconomics that reads “On January 3, the #GDPNow model forecast for real GDP growth in Q4 2016 is 2.9%” and shows a chart about the GDP forecast.

End.

FIGURE 29

A tweet by @unsmokable that reads “the life of a national geographic photographer” and shows a photo of a man standing on volcanic terrain and looking through a camera situated on a tripod. The photographer’s shoes and tripod have flames around them.

End.

FIGURE 30

A closer crop of the tweet by user @unsmokable showing the results when a viewer right-clicks/control-clicks on the image.

End.

FIGURE 31

Results from a Google reverse image search on the photo from Twitter user @unsmokable’s tweet.

End.

FIGURE 32

A Reddit post titled, “In the heat of the moment” with comments debating over the photo of the photographer with flaming shoes and a tripod.

End.

FIGURE 33

An article by Katie Hosmer titled “Hot Lava Sets Adventurous Photographer’s Feet on Fire.”

End.

FIGURE 34

A close up of the article by Katie Hosmer showing the text “via [PetaPixel].”

End.

 

FIGURE 35

Text from the PetaPixel site quoting the photographer of the lava photo, reading, “The photo is real, but the flames are not the result of spontaneous combustion” going on to explain that the photographer used an accelerant to start the flames.

End.

FIGURE 36

Close up of the PetaPixel site showing the results when a reader right-clicks/control-clicks on the Hawaii News Now link.

End.

FIGURE 37

The Google results from searching “Hawaii News Now.”

End.

FIGURE 38

A photo Twitter users attributed to National Geographic, which depicts what appears to be a photographer being attacked by a bird.

End.

FIGURE 39

A Google reverse image search result that suggests the best search term to find our original source is “birds attacking people.”

End.

FIGURE 40

A list of pages including images that match the reverse searched image. The first webpage is titled, “Dangerous Birds – Top 10 Birds That Could Kick Your Ass.” All of the pages appear to discuss bird attacks.

End.

FIGURE 41

An expanded settings list for Google reverse image search that can be accessed by clicking “Tools” and “Custom range…” These settings can be altered to filter out newer photos by modifying the dates that will be included in the results list.

End.

FIGURE 42

A new reverse image search, with a custom date of Dec 31, 2009 to exclude newer photos, such as those which may have been virally propagated under false pretenses. Now, our suggested search term is “bird.”

End.

FIGURE 43

The result page of our reverse image search, in which the title of the third website, PentaxForums, reads, “Got too close the the hawk :(,“ and the description reads: “And as the poster said, these are trained…so its more like the camera man pissed off the hunter rather than the bird itself. Rest of the photos. Kazakhstan Eagle…”

End.

FIGURE 44

An article from the Press titled, “Kazakhstan Eagle Hunt,” which features our image.

End.

FIGURE 45

A list of Google search results of the search term, “stockton ca local affiliate.” We will select the fourth listing, CBS Sacramento.

End.

FIGURE 46

CBS Sacramento search with “teenage girls black lives matter” in the search bar.

End.

FIGURE 47

A photograph depicting a group of photographers running from a bear.

End.

FIGURE 48

A photograph in which a man in a body of water is hiding with a camera in a swan hunting tent.

End.

FIGURE 49

A photograph showing a section of a city empty and in shambles with what appears to be debris cluttering the buildings and streets.

End.

FIGURE 50

A photograph depicting a large stone ram on top of a semi-truck with the “OVER-SIZE” label on its front bumper. The ram appears to be more than three times the height of the semi-truck.

End.

FIGURE 51

A screenshot of the Baltimore Gazette, a site created to spread misinformation. The headline reads, “Clinton Received Debate Questions Week Before Debate, According to Sources.”

End.

FIGURE 52

A Google search tip demonstrating how to exclude a specific site from search results. The string used in the example is “baltimoregazette.com -site:baltimoregazette.com”. This would search all sites except for “baltimoregazette.com.”

End.

FIGURE 53

The homepage of the Pacific Justice Institute.

End.

FIGURE 54

Google search results for “www.pacificjustice.org -site:www.pacificjustice.org.” The search omits the site www.pacificjustice.org and brings up a Wikipedia article as the first result.

End.

FIGURE 55

WHOIS search result on the ICANN interface for “motherjones.com.”  It displays the website’s owner, Foundation for National Progress, and its contact information.

End.

FIGURE 56

WHOIS search result on the ICANN interface for “baltimoregazette.com”. The website’s owner is listed as Domains by Proxy.

End.

FIGURE 57

A close up of baltimoregazette.com’s date of creation from WHOIS on the ICANN interface, which is listed as July of 2015.

End.

FIGURE 58

An article published in the peer-reviewed journal PLOS Medicine.

End.

FIGURE 59

A Google search for “plos medicine impact factor,” which indicates in the knowledge panel its impact factor is 13.585 as of 2015.

End.

FIGURE 60

An article published in the Journal of Obesity and Weight-loss Medication whose impact factor we want to investigate.

End.

FIGURE 61

A Google search for “Journal of Obesity and Weight-loss Medication impact factor” whose impact factor does not appear in a knowledge panel.

End.

FIGURE 62

The Google Scholar search results for “David Bann,” which features his many publications in lifespan obesity patterns. Most of the publications we find are from the last ten years.

End.

FIGURE 63

The AnonHQ article titled, “It’s Official: European Scientific Journal Concludes 9/11 was a Controlled Demolition.” The article has over 14,000 views and was published on September 11, 2016.

End.

FIGURE 64

The Google Scholar search results for “Robert Korol,” who appears to have published architectural research in the 1970s, 80s, and 90s.

End.

FIGURE 65

The Google Scholar search results for “Jennie Connor 2016,” which shows her well-cited publications. Her 2017 article received 12 citations, and two articles were cited by 23 and 36 others.

End.

FIGURE 66

The Google search results for “addiction impact factor,” which we find in the knowledge panel to be 4.145 as of 2010.

End.

FIGURE 67

The Google search result for “nih alcohol and cancer.” The fifth result from the NIH is described as “A fact sheet that summarizes the evidence linking alcohol consumption to the risk of various cancers…”

End.

FIGURE 68

The Google search result for “www.cancer.gov -site:www.cancer.gov.” This search includes all sites other than www.cancer.gov. We see that five results down, the National Health Institute, an organization we trust, is talking about the National Cancer Institute.

End.

FIGURE 69

A tweet by Twitter user @MichaelESmith that reads, “Bullshit! Aztec society collapsed in 1519 fr. Cortes & smallpox. Salmonella in 1540 was far too late. And the painting is European fantasy.” Smith is responding to a tweet claiming that salmonella poisoning may have contributed to the fall of the Aztec civilization.

End.

FIGURE 70

A tweet by @pixelatedboat featuring a photo of two men that reads, “This is Woodward and Bernstein. Nixon called them the enemy. They proved that no president is above the law. #NotTheEnemy.”

End.

FIGURE 71

A tweet by user @RepJackKimble that reads, “Why have the wars cost so much under Obama? Check the budgets, Bush fought 2 wars without costing taxpayers a dime.”

End.

FIGURE 72

The Twitter bio of user @RepJackKimble reading, “Congressman from CA’s 54th District. JackKimble.com Author of Profiles in Courageousness amzn.to/1ER7SeU E pluribus unum (1 Nation under God).”

End.

FIGURE 73

The Twitter bio of user @jasoninthehouse reading, “United States Congressman (UT-3). Chairman, Oversight & Government Reform. Tweets come from me, not my staff.” The user’s name has a small blue seal next to his name, indicating that his identity is verified by Twitter.

End.

FIGURE 74

The header of Twitter user @PerseusJackson, strategically using the background image to give the impression that it is a verified account by Twitter.

End.

FIGURE 75

A video showing how to hover over a Twitter user’s verification seal to check if it is legitimate.

End.

FIGURE 76

The Twitter bio of user @MinervaSchools reading, “Minerva offers a unique undergraduate education for the brightest, most motivated students in the world.”

End.

FIGURE 77

Twitter user @MinervaSchool’s tweetstream from February showing two tweets, the number of followers the account has, and the number of tweets the account has made.

End.

FIGURE 78

A tweet by user @mcpli mocking the screenshot of a supposed tweet by user @DanPatrick which reads, “MARRIAGE= ONE MAN & ONE MAN. Enough of these activist judges. FAVORITE if you agree. I know the silent majority out there is with us!”

End.

FIGURE 79

A fake tweet generated by the author of this text that shows user @BarackObama tweeting, “Web Literacy for Student Fact-Checkers is AMAZING! You should read it. (Thanks Mike!)”

End.

FIGURE 80

The Politiwhoops archive of deleted tweets by user @realDonaldTrump showing two tweets made and deleted by the account in February of 2017.

End.

FIGURE 81

A video showing how to view the cached version of @realDonaldTrump’s Twitter page by searching the account through Google, hovering over the drop down arrow next to the first result’s URL, and selecting “Cached.”

End.

FIGURE 82

Google’s cache information of @realDonaldTrump’s Twitter page, reading “This is Google’s cache of https://twitter.com/realdonaldtrump. It is a snapshot of the page as it appeared on Feb 15, 2017 14:46:56 GMT.”

End.

FIGURE 83

The search bar of the Wayback Machine with the search term “whitehouse.gov” typed in.

End.

FIGURE 84

The Wayback Machine’s search results for “whitehouse.gov” displaying a calendar of the months of January, February, March, and April of 1999 with blue and green dots encasing some of the calendar’s dates.

End.

FIGURE 85

The page of whitehouse.gov from January 1999 showing links to White House documents, the contents of the website, Radio Addresses of the President, Executive Orders, Photographs, a database to all government sites, The Decleration of Independence, The Constitution of the United States, a subscription list, and press releases.

End.

FIGURE 86

An ABCNews.co article entitled, “Donald Trump Protester Speaks Out: ‘I Was Paid $3,500 To Protest Trump’s Rally” and showing a publication date of November 11, 2016.

End.

FIGURE 87

An ABCNews.co article entitled, “Donald Trump Protester Speaks Out: ‘I Was Paid $3,500 To Protest Trump’s Rally” and showing a publication date of March 24, 2016.

End.

FIGURE 88

An ABCNews.co article entitled, “Donald Trump Protester Speaks Out: ‘I Was Paid $3,500 To Protest Trump’s Rally” and showing a publication date of June 16, 2016.

End.

FIGURE 89

An ABCNews.co article entitled, “Donald Trump Protester Speaks Out: ‘I Was Paid $3,500 To Protest Trump’s Rally” and showing a publication date of Septembe 11, 2016.

End.

FIGURE 90

The first Google result for “site:abcnews.com.co/donald-trump-protester-speaks-out-i-was-paid-to-protest/” showing the abcnews.co article with a publication date of March 26, 2016.

End.

FIGURE 91

A tweet by user @cbquist posting a quote supposedly said by Carl Sagan, which states, “I have a foreboding of an America in my children’s or grandchildren’s time–when the United States is a service and information economy; when nearly all the manufacturing industries have slipped away to other countries; when awesome technological powers are in the hands of a very few, and no one representing the public interest can even grasp the issues; when the people have lost the ability to set their own agendas or knowledgeably question those in authority; when, clutching our crystals and nervously consulting our horoscopes, our critical faculties in decline, unable to distinguish between what feels good and what’s true, we slide, almost without noticing, back into superstition and darkness.”

End.

FIGURE 92

The top Google Books search results for “clutching our crystals and nervously consulting.”

End.

FIGURE 93

An excerpt of Carl Sagan’s Demon-Haunted World, found through Google Books, where Sagan provides the quote that was attributed to him by Twitter user @cbquist.

End.

FIGURE 94

The publication information of Carl Sagan’s Demon-Haunted World showing a publication date of 1996.

End.

FIGURE 95

Internet Archive‘s TV News Archive search for “tremendous sea of love.” The second result is our video, and I have circled the video, which is from ABC.

End.

FIGURE 96

A search for “pence muslim ban” in the Trump archive, which shows the text of a video in which Mike Pence, when asked if he agrees with the Muslim ban, responded, “I do.”

End.

FIGURE 97

Google search result for “how many men landed on the moon” in which a knowledge panel answers the query via Quora with “12 men.”

End.

FIGURE 98

Google search result for “last man to land on the moon” in which a knowledge panel pulls text from a Wikipedia article and puts the name “Cernan” in bold as the answer to the question.

End.

FIGURE 99

Google search result for “how many apostles were there” in which a knowledge panel replies “12 apostles” via Quora.

End.

FIGURE 100

Google search result for “how old was lee harvey oswold at the time of the assassination” in which a knowledge panel puts in bold 18, 22, and 24, which are numbers from Oswold’s date of birth, date of death, and the date of the assassination via a Wikipedia article. None are an answer to the Googled question.

End.

FIGURE 101

Google search result for “Presidents in the kkk” in which a knowledge panel pulls the names of several presidents from The Trent Online.

End.

FIGURE 102

Google search result for “is obama planning martial law” in which a knowledge panel pulls a quote from newstarget.com claiming that Obama is in fact planning martial law.

End.

FIGURE 103

Google search result for “why did lee harvey oswold assassinate president kennedy” in which a knowledge panel pulls text from a site claiming that Oswold did not assassinate President Kennedy.

End.

FIGURE 104

Google search result for “msg sensitvity” in which a knowledge panel pulls a list of symptoms from Healthline.

End.

FIGURE 105

Google search result for “msg dangers” in which a knowledge panel brings up Mercola, which claims that msg causes brain damage, such as Alzheimer’s disease and learning disabilities.

End.

FIGURE 106

Homepage of Buzzsumo, which features a search bar on its main page.

End.

FIGURE 107

Buzzsumo results for “cancer,” showing two articles and their Facebook engagements, which is meant to measure the virality of the articles on Facebook.

End.

FIGURE 108

Buzzsumo results for “cancer” scrolled down a few articles. One article, “Royal Rife: Cancer Cure Genius Silenced by Medical Mafia” uses particularly inflammatory language.

End.

FIGURE 109

Domain Dossier search bar with “coca-cola.com” typed in and a list of databases it searches with boxes next to them you click to include results from.

End.

FIGURE 110

Domain Dossier results for the search on “coca-cola.com” in which the registrant’s name, organization, street, and city are all available for public access.

End.

FIGURE 111

Domain Dossier search results for “protrump45.com,” showing that the site’s owner is masked.

End.

FIGURE 112

Domain Dossier search results showing the registrant of a site’s name as Domains by Proxy, LLC, a service that masks the real owners of sites.

End.

FIGURE 113

Google search results for “was 9/11 a hoax” in which the top five sites confirm the conspiracy that 9/11 was faked.

End.

FIGURE 114

Google search results for “are we eating too much protein” in which Google pulls a knowledge panel from Huffington Post, and the top site promotes veganism.

End.

FIGURE 115

Promoted tweet from user @SafeMedicine urging us to tweet our senators against our exposure to unsafe medicine. We can tell it’s promoted by the gray text that reads “Promoted” below the “reply,” “retweet,” and “like” functions.

End.

FIGURE 116

Twitter page for user @SafeMedicine, which features its website name, safemedicine.org.

End.

FIGURE 117

The homepage of safemedicine.org, which reveals the name of the organization, The Partnership for Safe Medicines.

End.

FIGURE 118

An article about The Partnership for Safe Medicines on the Northwest Public Radio site titled, “Nonprofit Working to Block Drug Imports Has Ties to Pharma Lobby.”

End.

FIGURE 119

The headline of a newspaper article from 1973 titled “Nixon Sees ‘Witch-Hunt’ Insiders Say” with the Washington Post’s name below the headline.

End.

FIGURE 120

Google search results for “Nixon Sees Witch Hunt (site: newspapers.com OR site: google.news.com/newspapers OR site: newspaperarchive.com)” to only search on these three sites. The first result, from the LA Times, mentions our headline in the description and is from 1973.

End.

FIGURE 121

The newspaper article from the first result of our last Google search, which features our headline “Nixon Sees ‘Witch-Hunt’ Insiders Say.”

End.

FIGURE 122

Google search results for “Airline Pilot to Fly by Seat of Panties (site:newspapers.com OR site:news.google.com/newspapers OR site:newspaperarchive.com),” in which the article appears in the first result.

End.

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Image Descriptions by Michael A. Caulfield is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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